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     Foundations of Individual Behavior

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    عدد المساهمات : 552
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 10/11/2012
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    مُساهمةموضوع: Foundations of Individual Behavior   الجمعة نوفمبر 16, 2012 12:24 am

    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
    Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
    Foundations of
    Individual Behavior
    Lecturer: Do Tien Long
    09 04 51 54 46
    [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Behavior, Do Tien Long
    The changing nature & scope of
    managing individuals
    In the 21st century there are new demands for
    an unpredictable future –
    z There is ever-increasing change
    z There are flatter, matrix-based structures
    z There are new work methods
    z More need to balance family demands & work
    z Increased consumerismOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Embracing diversity – an
    organisation’s perspective
    We ought to reflect the style, taste & opinions of
    our consumers, who represent sexes, all colours
    & creeds, all ages & disabilities.
    Cultural diversity will strengthen the quality of the
    company & will make us much more outwardlooking.
    Barry Gibson, LittlewoodsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Defining diversity
    z Relating & working with people who hold different
    perspectives & views, bringing different qualities to the
    workplace
    Diversity consists of visible & non-visible differences
    which will include sex, age, background, race, disability,
    personality and workstyle.
    Kandola & FullertonOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Managing diversity
    Does not mean managers champion their own
    values & try & shift other people’s values to
    conform & match their own
    Does mean encouraging individuality & at the
    same time expecting group co-operation & team
    workOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    How do individuals differ?
    z Ethnic origin
    z Physique
    z Gender
    z Early family
    experiences
    z Social & cultural
    factors
    z National culture
    z Motivation
    z Attitudes
    z Personality
    z Intelligence &
    abilities
    z PerceptionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Personality
    z Defined as the combination of stable physical and
    mental characteristics that give the individual his or
    her identity
    z Including how one looks, thinks, acts and feels
    z Are the product of interacting genetic and
    environmental influencesOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    The big five personality dimensions
    Personality Dimension
    1. Extraversion
    2. Agreeableness
    3. Conscientiousness
    4. Emotional stability
    5. Openness to experience
    Characteristics of a person scoring
    positively on the dimension
    Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
    Trusting, good natured, cooperative,
    soft hearted
    Dependable, responsible, achievement
    oriented, persistence
    Relaxed, secure, unworried
    Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad
    minded
    Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
    th
    , Robert Kreitner & Angelo KinikiOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Personality and job performance
    z Studies showed that:
    z Generally Conscientiousness had the strongest positive
    correlation with job and training performance
    z Extraversion associated with success for managers and
    salesperson; stronger predictor of job performance than
    Agreeableness
    z Being courteous, trusting, straightforeward, and soft-hearted
    had smaller impact on job performance than being talkative,
    active, and assertive
    z One shoes does not fit all people, one personality
    does not fit all job situationsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Personality and Self-concept
    z Self-concept is the view individuals have of
    themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral
    beings
    z Is a key personality dynamic in study of OB
    z 3 related and crucial aspects are:
    z Self-esteem: one’s overall self-evaluation
    z Self-efficacy: a person’s belief about his or her chances of
    successfully accomplishing a specific task
    z Self-monitoring: observing one ‘s own behavior and adapting
    it to the situationOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Conceptual model for individual
    differences
    Self-concept
    •Self-esteem
    •Self-efficacy
    •Self-monitoring
    Personality
    traits
    The unique individual Forms of self-expression
    Attitudes
    Abilities
    Emotions
    Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
    th
    , Robert Kreitner & Angelo KinikiOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Attitude
    Is a predisposition to respond in a positive or
    negative way to someone or something in
    one’s environment
    z An attitude results in intended behavior; this
    intention may or may not be carried out in a
    given circumstance
    z In general, the more specific attitudes and
    behaviors are, the stronger the relationshipOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Attitude
    z The cognitive component of an attitude reflects the
    beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person
    possesses
    z Beliefs represent ideas about someone or something
    and the conclusions people draw about them
    z The effective component of an attitude is a specific
    feeling regarding the personal impact of the
    antecedent
    z The behavioral component is an intention to behave in
    a certain way based on your specific feelings or
    attitudesOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Example of 3 components of
    attitudes
    Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
    th
    , Robert Kreitner & Angelo Kiniki
    ANTECEDENTS
    beliefs and
    values
    “My job lacks
    responsibility”
    “Job responsibility
    is important”.
    ATTITUDE
    feelings
    “I don’t like my
    lob”.
    RESULT
    Intended
    behavior
    “I’m going to quit
    my job”.
    create that
    influenceOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Attitudes and values
    z Values defined as broad preferences concerning
    appropriate courses of action or outcomes. It tends to
    influence to attitudes and behavior
    z Values reflect a person ‘s sense of right or wrong, or
    what “ought” to be: “equal rights for all” or “people
    should be treated with respect and dignity”
    z Sources of values are parents, friends, teachers and
    external reference groupOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Attitudes
    z Provide a state of readiness or tendency to
    respond in a particular way
    z Are learned through life and are embodied
    within our socialisation processOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Abilities and Emotion
    z Ability represents a broad and stable
    characteristic responsible for a person’s
    maximum physical or mental performance
    z Intellectual ability
    z Physical ability
    z Emotions are intense feelings that are directed
    at someone or somethingOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Is intelligence inherited
    Nativists – believe intelligence is mostly inherited (nature)
    Empiricists – believe that our environment shapes our
    behaviour & mental abilities (nurture)
    Galton suggests that genius runs in families & so
    intelligence must be inheritedOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Emotional intelligence (EI)
    z Expands classical view of intelligence to include
    emotional qualities of individuals
    z Can predict top performance
    z 18 competencies including items such as empathy,
    developing others, service orientation, change
    catalyst, initiative, adaptability, self-confidence
    GoldmanOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    IQ vs. EQ
    IQ
    z Abilities of logic,
    conculation, languege,
    and spaces
    z From birth
    z Control reason
    z Little impact to others
    z Suit to managerial
    responsibility
    EQ
    z Ability to recognize,
    understand, monitor the
    emotions, and use it to
    develop thinking
    z Possible to grow
    z Can control the behavior of
    the individual and others
    z Have influence to others
    z Suit to managerial relationsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Ability-Job
    Fit
    The Ability-Job Fit
    RequirementsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    What Is Perception, and Why Is It
    Important?
    •People’s behavior is
    based on their
    perception of what
    reality is, not on
    reality itself.
    •The world as it is
    perceived is the world
    that is behaviorally
    important.
    Perception
    A process by which
    individuals organize and
    interpret their sensory
    impressions in order to
    give meaning to their
    environment.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Errors and Biases in Attributions
    Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to underestimate
    the influence of external factors
    and overestimate the influence
    of internal factors when making
    judgments about the behavior
    of others.
    In general, we
    tend to blame the
    person first, not
    the situation. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Errors and Biases in Attributions
    (cont’d)
    Self-Serving Bias
    The tendency for individuals to
    attribute their own successes
    to internal factors while
    putting the blame for failures
    on external factors.
    Thought: When student
    gets an “A” on an exam,
    they often say they studied
    hard. But when they don’t
    do well, how does the self
    serving bias come into
    play?
    Hint: Whose fault is it
    usually when an exam is
    “tough”? Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Frequently Used Shortcuts in
    Judging Others
    Selective Perception
    People selectively interpret what they see on the
    basis of their interests, background, experience,
    and attitudes.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Frequently Used Shortcuts in
    Judging Others
    Halo Effect
    Drawing a general impression
    about an individual on the
    basis of a single characteristic
    Contrast Effects
    Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that
    are affected by comparisons with other
    people recently encountered who rank higher
    or lower on the same characteristicsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Frequently Used Shortcuts in
    Judging Others
    Projection
    Attributing one’s own
    characteristics to other
    people.
    Stereotyping
    Judging someone on the
    basis of one’s perception of
    the group to which that
    person belongs.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Specific Applications in
    Organizations
    z Employment Interview
    z Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’
    judgments of applicants.
    z Performance Expectations
    z Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher
    performance of employees reflects preconceived leader
    expectations about employee capabilities.
    z Ethnic Profiling
    z A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled
    out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive
    inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Specific Applications in
    Organizations (cont’d)
    z Performance Evaluations
    z Appraisals are often the subjective
    (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of
    another employee’s job performance.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    The Link Between Perceptions and
    Individual Decision Making
    Perception
    of the
    decision
    maker
    Outcomes
    Problem
    A perceived discrepancy
    between the current state of
    affairs and a desired state.
    Decisions
    Choices made from among
    alternatives developed from
    data perceived as relevant.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Assumptions of the Rational
    Decision-Making Model
    Model Assumptions
    • Problem clarity
    • Known options
    • Clear preferences
    • Constant
    preferences
    • No time or cost
    constraints
    • Maximum payoff
    Model Assumptions
    • Problem clarity
    • Known options
    • Clear preferences
    • Constant
    preferences
    • No time or cost
    constraints
    • Maximum payoff
    Rational DecisionMaking Model
    Describes how
    individuals should
    behave in order to
    maximize some
    outcome.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Steps in the Rational DecisionMaking Model
    1. Define the problem.
    2. Identify the decision criteria.
    3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
    4. Develop the alternatives.
    5. Evaluate the alternatives.
    6. Select the best alternative.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    The Three Components of
    Creativity
    Creativity
    The ability to produce
    novel and useful ideas.
    Three-Component
    Model of Creativity
    Proposition that individual
    creativity requires expertise,
    creative-thinking skills, and
    intrinsic task motivation.
    E X H I B I T 5–4
    E X H I B I T 5–4Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Creative thinking process
    Creativity – the application of imaginative thought which
    results in innovative solutions to many problems
    1. Preparation
    2. Incubation
    3. Illumination
    4. Verification
    WallasOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    How Are Decisions Actually Made
    in Organizations?
    Bounded Rationality
    Individuals make decisions by constructing
    simplified models that extract the essential
    features from problems without capturing
    all their complexity.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Common Biases and Errors
    z Overconfidence Bias
    z Believing too much in our own ability to make
    good decisions
    z Anchoring Bias
    z Using early, first received information as the basis
    for making subsequent judgments
    z Confirmation Bias
    z Using only the facts that support our decision.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Common Biases and Errors
    z Availability Bias
    z Using information that is most readily at hand.
    z Representative Bias
    z “Mixing apples with oranges”
    z Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying
    to match it with a preexisting category using only
    the facts that support our decisionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Common Biases and Errors
    z Escalation of Commitment
    z In spite of new negative information, commitment actually
    increases!
    z Randomness Error
    z Creating meaning out of random events
    z Hindsight Bias
    z Looking back, once the outcome has occurred, and believing
    that you accurately predicted the outcome of an event Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Intuition
    z Intuitive Decision Making
    z An unconscious process created out of distilled experience.
    z Conditions Favoring Intuitive Decision Making
    z A high level of uncertainty exists
    z There is little precedent to draw on
    z Variables are less scientifically predictable
    z “Facts” are limited
    z Facts don’t clearly point the way
    z Analytical data are of little use
    z Several plausible alternative solutions exist
    z Time is limited and pressing for the right decisionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Individual Differences in Decision
    Making
    ¾ Personality
    ¾Aspects of conscientiousness and
    escalation of commitment.
    ¾ Self Esteem High self serving bias
    ¾ Gender
    ¾Women tend to analyze decisions more
    than men. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Organizational Constraints on
    Decision Makers
    z Performance Evaluation
    z Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions.
    z Reward Systems
    z Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the
    organization.
    z Formal Regulations
    z Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices
    of decision makers.
    z System-imposed Time Constraints
    z Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines.
    z Historical Precedents
    z Past decisions influence current decisions.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Cultural Differences in Decision
    Making
    z Problems selected
    z Time orientation
    z Importance of logic and
    rationality
    z Belief in the ability of
    people to solve
    problems
    z Preference for collective
    decision makingOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Ethics in Decision Making
    z Ethics and National Culture
    z There are no global ethical
    standards.
    z The ethical principles of
    global organizations that
    reflect and respect local
    cultural norms are
    necessary for high
    standards and consistent
    practices.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Ways to Improve Decision Making
    1. Analyze the situation and adjust your decision making
    style to fit the situation.
    2. Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact.
    3. Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase
    decision-making effectiveness.
    4. Don’t assume that your specific decision style is
    appropriate to every situation.
    5. Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel
    solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using
    analogies.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Toward Reducing Bias and Errors
    z Focus on goals.
    z Clear goals make decision making easier and help to eliminate
    options inconsistent with your interests.
    z Look for information that disconfirms beliefs.
    z Overtly considering ways we could be wrong challenges our
    tendencies to think we’re smarter than we actually are.
    z Don’t try to create meaning out of random events.
    z Don’t attempt to create meaning out of coincidence.
    z Increase your options.
    z The number and diversity of alternatives generated increases
    the chance of finding an outstanding one.
    Source: S.P. Robbins, Decide & Conquer: Making Winning Decisions and Taking Control
    of Your Life (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2004), pp. 164–68.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Learning
    Learning
    • Involves change
    • Is relatively permanent
    • Is acquired through experience
    Learning
    • Involves change
    • Is relatively permanent
    • Is acquired through experience
    Learning
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior
    that occurs as a result of experience.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Theories of Learning
    Key Concepts
    • Unconditioned stimulus
    • Unconditioned response
    • Conditioned stimulus
    • Conditioned response
    Key Concepts
    • Unconditioned stimulus
    • Unconditioned response
    • Conditioned stimulus
    • Conditioned response
    Classical Conditioning
    A type of conditioning in which an individual
    responds to some stimulus that would not
    ordinarily produce such a response.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    E X H I B I T 2–3
    E X H I B I T 2–3
    Source: The Far Side ®
    by Gary Larson © 1993
    Far Works, Inc. All rights
    reserved. Used with
    permission.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    Key Concepts
    • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
    • Conditioned (learned) behavior
    • Reinforcement
    Key Concepts
    • Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
    • Conditioned (learned) behavior
    • Reinforcement
    Operant Conditioning
    A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
    behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    Key Concepts
    • Attentional processes
    • Retention processes
    • Motor reproduction processes
    • Reinforcement processes
    Key Concepts
    • Attentional processes
    • Retention processes
    • Motor reproduction processes
    • Reinforcement processes
    Social-Learning Theory
    People can learn through observation
    and direct experience.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Theories of Learning (cont’d)
    Key Concepts
    • Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
    • Some rewards are more effective than others.
    • The timing of reinforcement affects learning
    speed and permanence.
    Key Concepts
    • Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
    • Some rewards are more effective than others.
    • The timing of reinforcement affects learning
    speed and permanence.
    Shaping Behavior
    Systematically reinforcing each successive step that
    moves an individual closer to the desired response.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Types of Reinforcement
    z Positive reinforcement
    z Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
    z Negative reinforcement
    z Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired
    behavior occurs.
    z Punishment
    z Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable
    behavior.
    z Extinction
    z Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
    cessation.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Schedules of Reinforcement
    Continuous Reinforcement
    A desired behavior is reinforced
    each time it is demonstrated.
    Intermittent Reinforcement
    A desired behavior is reinforced
    often enough to make the
    behavior worth repeating but not
    every time it is demonstrated.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Schedules of Reinforcement
    (cont’d)
    Fixed-Interval Schedule
    Rewards are spaced at
    uniform time intervals.
    Variable-Interval Schedule
    Rewards are initiated after a
    fixed or constant number of
    responses.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Schedules of Reinforcement
    (cont’d)
    Fixed-ratioOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Reinforcement Theory
    When professors give random pop quizzes or
    take random attendance, students often
    complain that they are adults, old enough to
    make their own decisions, and should
    therefore not be required to come to class.
    How do you reconcile this argument with
    what we know about reinforcement theory?
    What kind of reinforcement schedule are these Discuss with a classmate.
    professors using? Would a different schedule be
    preferable? If so, which one? Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Reinforcement Theory
    Recall and write down the three criteria that
    indicate learning has occurred. Do you think
    that learning, according to these criteria,
    really occurs as a result of a one semester
    college class? Discuss with a neighbor.
    What kinds of things would you recommend to a
    college professor to increase the likelihood of
    students learning? Use theories from the text to
    frame your answer. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Factors influencing the learning
    processOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    The significance of learning for
    managers
    • Powerful processes which can lead to positive
    outcomes, e.g. increased competence, understanding,
    self esteem & morale
    • Individuals who enjoy learning are more likely to be
    flexible in times of constant change & therefore more
    adaptable to organisational turbulence
    • Growing evidence that a learning culture can affect an
    organisation’s effectivenessOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Components of the thinking
    environment
    z Attention
    z Incisive questions
    z Equality
    z Appreciation
    z Ease
    Kline
    z Encouragement
    z Feelings
    z Information
    z Place
    z DiversityOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Action learning sets
    z Small groups of people who all wish to
    develop themselves through tackling live
    issues
    z The sets provide opportunities for each
    individual to report in turn on their actions and
    reflect on the progress they have madeOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Applying theories of learning to
    organisations
    1. Self development – learning what to do, how
    to be, learning the ropes
    2. Development of others – personal
    development, development of planned
    learning events
    3. Development of learning culture – policy
    development Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
    Develop a life plan
    z Think about where you are going/want to
    go/want to achieve
    z Work out what it is that is important to you
    z Identify stability zones in your life
    z Involve your family/friends, take account of
    their need
    z Set clear and realistic goals and priorities
    z Eliminate the less value aspects of your life
    الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
    http://dr-hasem.ahlamontada.com
     
    Foundations of Individual Behavior
    الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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