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 Foundations of Individual Behavior

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مُساهمةموضوع: Foundations of Individual Behavior   الجمعة نوفمبر 16, 2012 12:24 am

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
Foundations of
Individual Behavior
Lecturer: Do Tien Long
09 04 51 54 46
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] Behavior, Do Tien Long
The changing nature & scope of
managing individuals
In the 21st century there are new demands for
an unpredictable future –
z There is ever-increasing change
z There are flatter, matrix-based structures
z There are new work methods
z More need to balance family demands & work
z Increased consumerismOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Embracing diversity – an
organisation’s perspective
We ought to reflect the style, taste & opinions of
our consumers, who represent sexes, all colours
& creeds, all ages & disabilities.
Cultural diversity will strengthen the quality of the
company & will make us much more outwardlooking.
Barry Gibson, LittlewoodsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Defining diversity
z Relating & working with people who hold different
perspectives & views, bringing different qualities to the
workplace
Diversity consists of visible & non-visible differences
which will include sex, age, background, race, disability,
personality and workstyle.
Kandola & FullertonOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Managing diversity
Does not mean managers champion their own
values & try & shift other people’s values to
conform & match their own
Does mean encouraging individuality & at the
same time expecting group co-operation & team
workOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
How do individuals differ?
z Ethnic origin
z Physique
z Gender
z Early family
experiences
z Social & cultural
factors
z National culture
z Motivation
z Attitudes
z Personality
z Intelligence &
abilities
z PerceptionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Personality
z Defined as the combination of stable physical and
mental characteristics that give the individual his or
her identity
z Including how one looks, thinks, acts and feels
z Are the product of interacting genetic and
environmental influencesOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
The big five personality dimensions
Personality Dimension
1. Extraversion
2. Agreeableness
3. Conscientiousness
4. Emotional stability
5. Openness to experience
Characteristics of a person scoring
positively on the dimension
Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
Trusting, good natured, cooperative,
soft hearted
Dependable, responsible, achievement
oriented, persistence
Relaxed, secure, unworried
Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad
minded
Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
th
, Robert Kreitner & Angelo KinikiOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Personality and job performance
z Studies showed that:
z Generally Conscientiousness had the strongest positive
correlation with job and training performance
z Extraversion associated with success for managers and
salesperson; stronger predictor of job performance than
Agreeableness
z Being courteous, trusting, straightforeward, and soft-hearted
had smaller impact on job performance than being talkative,
active, and assertive
z One shoes does not fit all people, one personality
does not fit all job situationsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Personality and Self-concept
z Self-concept is the view individuals have of
themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral
beings
z Is a key personality dynamic in study of OB
z 3 related and crucial aspects are:
z Self-esteem: one’s overall self-evaluation
z Self-efficacy: a person’s belief about his or her chances of
successfully accomplishing a specific task
z Self-monitoring: observing one ‘s own behavior and adapting
it to the situationOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Conceptual model for individual
differences
Self-concept
•Self-esteem
•Self-efficacy
•Self-monitoring
Personality
traits
The unique individual Forms of self-expression
Attitudes
Abilities
Emotions
Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
th
, Robert Kreitner & Angelo KinikiOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Attitude
Is a predisposition to respond in a positive or
negative way to someone or something in
one’s environment
z An attitude results in intended behavior; this
intention may or may not be carried out in a
given circumstance
z In general, the more specific attitudes and
behaviors are, the stronger the relationshipOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Attitude
z The cognitive component of an attitude reflects the
beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person
possesses
z Beliefs represent ideas about someone or something
and the conclusions people draw about them
z The effective component of an attitude is a specific
feeling regarding the personal impact of the
antecedent
z The behavioral component is an intention to behave in
a certain way based on your specific feelings or
attitudesOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Example of 3 components of
attitudes
Source: Organizational Behavior, 5
th
, Robert Kreitner & Angelo Kiniki
ANTECEDENTS
beliefs and
values
“My job lacks
responsibility”
“Job responsibility
is important”.
ATTITUDE
feelings
“I don’t like my
lob”.
RESULT
Intended
behavior
“I’m going to quit
my job”.
create that
influenceOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Attitudes and values
z Values defined as broad preferences concerning
appropriate courses of action or outcomes. It tends to
influence to attitudes and behavior
z Values reflect a person ‘s sense of right or wrong, or
what “ought” to be: “equal rights for all” or “people
should be treated with respect and dignity”
z Sources of values are parents, friends, teachers and
external reference groupOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Attitudes
z Provide a state of readiness or tendency to
respond in a particular way
z Are learned through life and are embodied
within our socialisation processOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Abilities and Emotion
z Ability represents a broad and stable
characteristic responsible for a person’s
maximum physical or mental performance
z Intellectual ability
z Physical ability
z Emotions are intense feelings that are directed
at someone or somethingOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Is intelligence inherited
Nativists – believe intelligence is mostly inherited (nature)
Empiricists – believe that our environment shapes our
behaviour & mental abilities (nurture)
Galton suggests that genius runs in families & so
intelligence must be inheritedOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Emotional intelligence (EI)
z Expands classical view of intelligence to include
emotional qualities of individuals
z Can predict top performance
z 18 competencies including items such as empathy,
developing others, service orientation, change
catalyst, initiative, adaptability, self-confidence
GoldmanOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
IQ vs. EQ
IQ
z Abilities of logic,
conculation, languege,
and spaces
z From birth
z Control reason
z Little impact to others
z Suit to managerial
responsibility
EQ
z Ability to recognize,
understand, monitor the
emotions, and use it to
develop thinking
z Possible to grow
z Can control the behavior of
the individual and others
z Have influence to others
z Suit to managerial relationsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Ability-Job
Fit
The Ability-Job Fit
RequirementsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
What Is Perception, and Why Is It
Important?
•People’s behavior is
based on their
perception of what
reality is, not on
reality itself.
•The world as it is
perceived is the world
that is behaviorally
important.
Perception
A process by which
individuals organize and
interpret their sensory
impressions in order to
give meaning to their
environment.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Errors and Biases in Attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate
the influence of external factors
and overestimate the influence
of internal factors when making
judgments about the behavior
of others.
In general, we
tend to blame the
person first, not
the situation. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Errors and Biases in Attributions
(cont’d)
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for individuals to
attribute their own successes
to internal factors while
putting the blame for failures
on external factors.
Thought: When student
gets an “A” on an exam,
they often say they studied
hard. But when they don’t
do well, how does the self
serving bias come into
play?
Hint: Whose fault is it
usually when an exam is
“tough”? Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Frequently Used Shortcuts in
Judging Others
Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the
basis of their interests, background, experience,
and attitudes.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Frequently Used Shortcuts in
Judging Others
Halo Effect
Drawing a general impression
about an individual on the
basis of a single characteristic
Contrast Effects
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that
are affected by comparisons with other
people recently encountered who rank higher
or lower on the same characteristicsOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Frequently Used Shortcuts in
Judging Others
Projection
Attributing one’s own
characteristics to other
people.
Stereotyping
Judging someone on the
basis of one’s perception of
the group to which that
person belongs.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Specific Applications in
Organizations
z Employment Interview
z Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’
judgments of applicants.
z Performance Expectations
z Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher
performance of employees reflects preconceived leader
expectations about employee capabilities.
z Ethnic Profiling
z A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled
out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive
inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Specific Applications in
Organizations (cont’d)
z Performance Evaluations
z Appraisals are often the subjective
(judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of
another employee’s job performance.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
The Link Between Perceptions and
Individual Decision Making
Perception
of the
decision
maker
Outcomes
Problem
A perceived discrepancy
between the current state of
affairs and a desired state.
Decisions
Choices made from among
alternatives developed from
data perceived as relevant.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Assumptions of the Rational
Decision-Making Model
Model Assumptions
• Problem clarity
• Known options
• Clear preferences
• Constant
preferences
• No time or cost
constraints
• Maximum payoff
Model Assumptions
• Problem clarity
• Known options
• Clear preferences
• Constant
preferences
• No time or cost
constraints
• Maximum payoff
Rational DecisionMaking Model
Describes how
individuals should
behave in order to
maximize some
outcome.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Steps in the Rational DecisionMaking Model
1. Define the problem.
2. Identify the decision criteria.
3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
4. Develop the alternatives.
5. Evaluate the alternatives.
6. Select the best alternative.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
The Three Components of
Creativity
Creativity
The ability to produce
novel and useful ideas.
Three-Component
Model of Creativity
Proposition that individual
creativity requires expertise,
creative-thinking skills, and
intrinsic task motivation.
E X H I B I T 5–4
E X H I B I T 5–4Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Creative thinking process
Creativity – the application of imaginative thought which
results in innovative solutions to many problems
1. Preparation
2. Incubation
3. Illumination
4. Verification
WallasOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
How Are Decisions Actually Made
in Organizations?
Bounded Rationality
Individuals make decisions by constructing
simplified models that extract the essential
features from problems without capturing
all their complexity.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Common Biases and Errors
z Overconfidence Bias
z Believing too much in our own ability to make
good decisions
z Anchoring Bias
z Using early, first received information as the basis
for making subsequent judgments
z Confirmation Bias
z Using only the facts that support our decision.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Common Biases and Errors
z Availability Bias
z Using information that is most readily at hand.
z Representative Bias
z “Mixing apples with oranges”
z Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying
to match it with a preexisting category using only
the facts that support our decisionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Common Biases and Errors
z Escalation of Commitment
z In spite of new negative information, commitment actually
increases!
z Randomness Error
z Creating meaning out of random events
z Hindsight Bias
z Looking back, once the outcome has occurred, and believing
that you accurately predicted the outcome of an event Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Intuition
z Intuitive Decision Making
z An unconscious process created out of distilled experience.
z Conditions Favoring Intuitive Decision Making
z A high level of uncertainty exists
z There is little precedent to draw on
z Variables are less scientifically predictable
z “Facts” are limited
z Facts don’t clearly point the way
z Analytical data are of little use
z Several plausible alternative solutions exist
z Time is limited and pressing for the right decisionOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Individual Differences in Decision
Making
¾ Personality
¾Aspects of conscientiousness and
escalation of commitment.
¾ Self Esteem High self serving bias
¾ Gender
¾Women tend to analyze decisions more
than men. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Organizational Constraints on
Decision Makers
z Performance Evaluation
z Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions.
z Reward Systems
z Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the
organization.
z Formal Regulations
z Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices
of decision makers.
z System-imposed Time Constraints
z Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines.
z Historical Precedents
z Past decisions influence current decisions.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Cultural Differences in Decision
Making
z Problems selected
z Time orientation
z Importance of logic and
rationality
z Belief in the ability of
people to solve
problems
z Preference for collective
decision makingOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Ethics in Decision Making
z Ethics and National Culture
z There are no global ethical
standards.
z The ethical principles of
global organizations that
reflect and respect local
cultural norms are
necessary for high
standards and consistent
practices.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Ways to Improve Decision Making
1. Analyze the situation and adjust your decision making
style to fit the situation.
2. Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact.
3. Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase
decision-making effectiveness.
4. Don’t assume that your specific decision style is
appropriate to every situation.
5. Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel
solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using
analogies.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Toward Reducing Bias and Errors
z Focus on goals.
z Clear goals make decision making easier and help to eliminate
options inconsistent with your interests.
z Look for information that disconfirms beliefs.
z Overtly considering ways we could be wrong challenges our
tendencies to think we’re smarter than we actually are.
z Don’t try to create meaning out of random events.
z Don’t attempt to create meaning out of coincidence.
z Increase your options.
z The number and diversity of alternatives generated increases
the chance of finding an outstanding one.
Source: S.P. Robbins, Decide & Conquer: Making Winning Decisions and Taking Control
of Your Life (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2004), pp. 164–68.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Learning
Learning
• Involves change
• Is relatively permanent
• Is acquired through experience
Learning
• Involves change
• Is relatively permanent
• Is acquired through experience
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Theories of Learning
Key Concepts
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
Key Concepts
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Unconditioned response
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
E X H I B I T 2–3
E X H I B I T 2–3
Source: The Far Side ®
by Gary Larson © 1993
Far Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with
permission.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Key Concepts
• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
• Conditioned (learned) behavior
• Reinforcement
Key Concepts
• Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
• Conditioned (learned) behavior
• Reinforcement
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Key Concepts
• Attentional processes
• Retention processes
• Motor reproduction processes
• Reinforcement processes
Key Concepts
• Attentional processes
• Retention processes
• Motor reproduction processes
• Reinforcement processes
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation
and direct experience.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Key Concepts
• Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
• Some rewards are more effective than others.
• The timing of reinforcement affects learning
speed and permanence.
Key Concepts
• Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
• Some rewards are more effective than others.
• The timing of reinforcement affects learning
speed and permanence.
Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that
moves an individual closer to the desired response.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Types of Reinforcement
z Positive reinforcement
z Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
z Negative reinforcement
z Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired
behavior occurs.
z Punishment
z Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable
behavior.
z Extinction
z Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
cessation.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
each time it is demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
often enough to make the
behavior worth repeating but not
every time it is demonstrated.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Schedules of Reinforcement
(cont’d)
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Rewards are spaced at
uniform time intervals.
Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated after a
fixed or constant number of
responses.Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Schedules of Reinforcement
(cont’d)
Fixed-ratioOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Reinforcement Theory
When professors give random pop quizzes or
take random attendance, students often
complain that they are adults, old enough to
make their own decisions, and should
therefore not be required to come to class.
How do you reconcile this argument with
what we know about reinforcement theory?
What kind of reinforcement schedule are these Discuss with a classmate.
professors using? Would a different schedule be
preferable? If so, which one? Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Reinforcement Theory
Recall and write down the three criteria that
indicate learning has occurred. Do you think
that learning, according to these criteria,
really occurs as a result of a one semester
college class? Discuss with a neighbor.
What kinds of things would you recommend to a
college professor to increase the likelihood of
students learning? Use theories from the text to
frame your answer. Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Factors influencing the learning
processOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
The significance of learning for
managers
• Powerful processes which can lead to positive
outcomes, e.g. increased competence, understanding,
self esteem & morale
• Individuals who enjoy learning are more likely to be
flexible in times of constant change & therefore more
adaptable to organisational turbulence
• Growing evidence that a learning culture can affect an
organisation’s effectivenessOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Components of the thinking
environment
z Attention
z Incisive questions
z Equality
z Appreciation
z Ease
Kline
z Encouragement
z Feelings
z Information
z Place
z DiversityOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Action learning sets
z Small groups of people who all wish to
develop themselves through tackling live
issues
z The sets provide opportunities for each
individual to report in turn on their actions and
reflect on the progress they have madeOrganizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Applying theories of learning to
organisations
1. Self development – learning what to do, how
to be, learning the ropes
2. Development of others – personal
development, development of planned
learning events
3. Development of learning culture – policy
development Organizational Behavior, Do Tien Long
Develop a life plan
z Think about where you are going/want to
go/want to achieve
z Work out what it is that is important to you
z Identify stability zones in your life
z Involve your family/friends, take account of
their need
z Set clear and realistic goals and priorities
z Eliminate the less value aspects of your life
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